Sunday, November 29, 2020

Which is the Biggest Dam in Maharashtra?

Which is the Biggest Dam in Maharashtra?

 

WHICH IS THE BIGGEST DAM IN MAHARASHTRA

The basic purpose of a dam is to retain water for using it for various purposes like- Electricity generation, agriculture and also to meet daily water requirements of settlements. Maharashtra, a state in central India has three major rivers flowing through it- Godavari, Tapti and Krishna. These rivers have a vast network of tributaries drenching the state of Maharashtra.

A dam build on one of the tributaries of the Krishna River – the Koyna River, houses the biggest dam in Maharashtra which is the main subject of this essay. The Koyna River rises in Mahabaleshwar, a hill station and notable tourist spot located on the Sahyadri mountain range of the Western Ghats.

QUICK FACTS ABOUT THE KOYNA DAM

  • Build on the Koyna River.
  • Located in the Deshmukhwadi village, Koyna Nagar, Satara District, Maharashtra.
  • Located 190 km south west of Pune.
  • 44 Km from Chiplun on Chiplun Karad SH 78.
  • Part of the ‘Koyna Hydroelectric Project’.
  • Biggest Dam in Maharashtra.
  • Completed in 1963, was the first largest civil engineering project post independence.
  • Made of rubble and concrete.
  • Total generation capacity of 1960 MW per day.
  • Largest hydro power generation unit in India.
  • The dam has a height of 103 meters.
  • Spill way is located in centre.
  • Spill way has six flood gates.
  • Provides water for agricultural and domestic purposes.
  • Plays vital role in containing floods during the monsoons.
  • The reservoir of the dam is 50 km in length and 262 feet deep called-Shivsagar Lake.
  • The capacity of reservoir is 105 TMC.
  • Asia’s first and second lake tappings in 1999 and 2012 respectively.
  • In 1967 a 6.5 magnitude earthquake developed some cracks on the dam.
  • Threatened by the encroachments along its backwaters.
  • Future plans of increasing the power generation by 400 MW.

Location

The Koyna Dam is located in the Koyna Nagar, Satara District, surrounded by the Western Ghats. If you are travelling from Chiplun to Karad on the State Highway No. 78, then 44 km (27.3 miles) from Chiplun, is the Koyna Dam located in Deshmukhwadi village. Koyna Nagar is located approximately 60 Km downstream of the Koyna River from its source. The area surrounding the dam is part of Koyna Wildlife sanctuary and is surrounded by lush green and pure locations. The backwaters of the Koyna Dam are also a source of various recreational activities.

 

The Need

Koyna Dam is part of a hydroelectric project constituting of four dams constructed to meet the electricity needs of the state of Maharashtra. Koyna Dam is the largest of them hence the project is named as ‘Koyna Hydroelectric Project’. The dam generates 1960 MW electricity daily and has a water storage capacity of 105 TMC.

The water stored in the nearly 50 Km (Shivasagar Lake) long reservoir of the Koyna Dam is diverted to the remaining dams of the project, due to which Koyna River is also called as ‘The Lifeline of Maharashtra’. The dam caters to the electricity and agriculture needs of the state of Maharashtra. The Koyna Dam has also served the water needs of the neighboring state Karnataka, when the latter faced a water scarcity.

Construction

The land acquisition for the Koyna Dam began in 1956 and the construction was completed in 1963. The Koyna Dam is considered an engineering marvel displaying construction excellence ahead of its time and is also the largest civil engineering project commissioned after the Independence and is run by the Maharashtra State Electricity Board.  The 103 meters high dam houses the largest hydroelectric power station in India with total capacity of 1960 MW. It is made up of rubble-concrete and has 33 floors and having channels for carrying water for irrigational and other purposes.

The spill way (a structure for the controlled release of the water) of the dam is located in the centre having six radial gates. The dam plays a vital role in controlling floods during the monsoon. Across all the stages, a total of 14-18 turbines are operational in the dam.

Threats

There are two major threats to the Koyna Dam as given below-

  • The Earthquakes.
  • Encroachment in the backwaters.

 

The Koyna Dam, since its construction has withstood many earthquakes. In 1967 a 6.5 magnitude earthquake shook the Koyna Dam resulting in cracks at some places. This unexpected natural calamity raised the concern for the safety of dam and nearby settlements. Indian scientists have formulated an ambitious project of drilling down a 7 km deep hole to study seismic activities under the earth’s surface.

The administration of the Koyna Dam has recently raised its concern about the increasing human encroachments in the back waters of Koyna Dam. They have recently submitted an affidavit in this regard to the Bombay High court.

NATURAL SIGNIFICANCE OF KOYNA DAM

When the water of the Koyna River was impounded by the Koyna Dam, a lake 50 km long (31 miles) having a depth of 262 ft was formed. This lake which is technically the reservoir of the Koyna Dam is called the Shivsagar Lake. The Lake is surrounded by serene green fields and forests and is often called as ‘Mini Kashmir’ by some nature lovers and travelers. The lake is also a place for many recreational activities like boating and other sports. The reservoir is surrounded by the Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary, which is another natural wonder sustained by the Koyna river and the Shivsagar lake.

The Koyna Wildlife Sanctuary surrounds the banks of Koyna from its origin to the areas near Koyna Dam. The sanctuary in the Western Ghats sustains many of the endangered and rare species like- Tiger, Bison or Indian Gaur, Barking deer, Leopards apart from many species of birds and reptiles. The backwaters of the Koyna Dam serve as the lifeline of this beautiful landscape which is a marvel of natural diversity and tranquility.

FAQS (FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS)

You can get the answer of these questions under FAQs:

On which River is the Koyna Dam build?

The Koyna Dam is built on the Koyna River, which is rising in Mahabaleshwar, Satara district of Maharashtra.

How to reach Koyna Dam?

Koyna Dam is located 44 km from Chiplun on Chiplun-Karad State Highway No. 78.

In which district/village is the dam located?

In Deshmukhwadi Village, Koyna Nagar, Satara District

How far is Koyna Dam from Mumbai?

The approximate road distance between Mumbai and Koyna Dam is 350 Km.

What is the purpose of the Koyna Dam?

Koyna Dam houses the biggest hydroelectric power generation unit in India, serving the electricity need of the state of Maharashtra.

Which ambitious project is the Koyna Dam a part of?

The ‘Koyna Hydroelectric Project’ with a total installed capacity of 2000 MW.

When was the Koyna Dam built?

The Dam constructed in 1963, was the largest civil engineering project commissioned after independence.

What is the height of the Koyna Dam?

The height of the Koyna Dam is 103 meters.

How many floors does the dam has?

The dam houses 33 floors having spillways for water distribution.

How many flood gates does the dam houses?

The spillway of the dam has six radial gates.

What is the total generation capacity of the dam?

The dam has a total capacity of 1960 MW.

What is the name of the Koyna dam reservoir?

The reservoir of the Koyna Dam is called Shivsagar Lake.

How big is the reservoir?

The Shivsagar Lake spans for nearly 50 kilometers having a depth of 262 feet.

What is the total storage capacity of the reservoir?

Total water storage capacity of the reservoir is 105 TMC (105 billion cubic feet)

Other than power generation what other purposes does it serves?

Supplying water for agriculture and drinking purposes.

How many villages are affected by the dam?

Land acquisition began in 1956 and construction completed in 1963, many of the villagers are still waiting rehabilitation.

How many lake tappings does Koyna Dam has?

The Koyna Dam has two lake tappings and was holding the distinction of Asia’s first and second lake tappings in 1999 and 2012 respectively.

Which Indian River goes to Pakistan?

Which Indian River goes to Pakistan?

 

WHICH INDIAN RIVER GOES TO PAKISTAN

There are more than one river flowing through or originating in India before entering Pakistan. Therefore, the question- ‘which Indian River goes to Pakistan?’ could be deceiving and the answer is thus provided below. Mainly there are six rivers flowing through India into the Pakistan – Indus, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej. Before we get into the details of their course and origin, there are few important facts that we must consider to avoid confusion.

All the other rivers except the Indus and Sutlej originate within Indian boundaries. Therefore, Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi and Beas are the rivers originating in India and flowing to Pakistan. Both Indus and Sutlej originate in Tibetan Plateau, passing through the state of Jammu and Kashmir before entering into Pakistan. Jhelum, Chenab, Ravi, Beas and Sutlej are also the main left bank tributaries of Indus, which will be further clarified below. In our narrative of the Indian Rivers goes to Pakistan, we will go one by one stating their origin, course, projects and their cultural and economical significance or even disputes or threats if any.

INDIAN RIVERS GO TO PAKISTAN

The main object of the topic is to enrich you with the geographical knowledge of the rivers and surrounding areas and habitation.

  1. INDUS RIVER

Indus is an ancient river with references in the Rig-Veda and other religious texts. The river has been so much important for the ancient Indian civilization that the name ‘India’ is a Greek derivation of Indus. The river has served the civilizations for thousands of years providing them a vast drainage area rich in agricultural production and suitable for other economical activities.

Indus also was regarded as a border between Iran and ancient India and was known as ‘Sindh’.  It is also credited with hosting one of the ancient civilizations, nearly 5500 BCE ago on earth- ‘The Indus valley civilization‘, along its fertile planes. The Indus runs for a total length of 2880 Km, and has a drainage area of more than 11,65,000 sq km.

Origin and Course

The Indus originates in the south western part of the Tibetan plateau, in the vicinity of Kailash Mansarovar Lake also known as ‘Mapam Yumko’ in China. The river flows through Mount Kailash dropping rapidly with the drop in ground elevation and passes through the Indian border of Pak occupied Kashmir finally entering POK at Baltistan district and henceforth becoming the Pakistan’s river. During its course from origin to POK, the river is fed with many streams deriving their water from glaciers and runs between Hindukush and Himalayan mountain ranges.

The first town along its course is Skardu in Pakistan. From here the river takes a southern course draining into the Arabian Sea near the port city of Karachi.

Major Tributaries of Indus

Apart from getting filled by the numerous glacier fed streams of the upper reaches of Hindukush and Himalayan Mountain ranges, the Indus has seven major tributaries, two on its right bank and five on its left bank. The right bank tributaries of Indus are- Kabul River and Kurram River, while the left bank tributaries are Ravi, Sutlej, Beas, Jhelum and Chenab rivers. The Kabul originates in Afghanistan and meets Indus near the Northern city of Attock in the Punjab province of Pakistan. Like the Kabul River, Kurram too originates in Afghanistan and meets the Indus in North Waziristan province of Pakistan.

 

The five left bank tributaries meet the Indus into the plains of Bahawalpur district in Punjab, Pakistan. The confluence of the five rivers of Punjab is known as ‘Panjnad’, which finally pours into the Indus River in the city of Mithankot, southern Punjab in Pakistan.

History

The Indus River has witnessed one of the oldest civilizations on the planet- the Indus valley civilization. The ancient cities of Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro which have become a symbol of structural and economical progress were the part of Indus valley civilization. The civilization extended from North-East Afghanistan to Pakistan and Northwestern India. Extending North to South from upper reaches of Punjab to Southern Gujarat.

The remnants of civilization found date back to 5500 BC and tell the tale of the flourishing economy and constructional advancements of that time. Till today thousands of ancient cities have been found, some of them being the Alamgirpur and Rakhigarhi. The name ‘India’ is said to be derived from ‘Indus’ and refers to the land lying to South-East of the Indus river.

Present Day Economic and Agricultural Activities

The 11,65,000 sq Km of the Indus drainage area provides a fertile ground for tremendous agricultural activities mainly in Pakistan, making Indus the Pakistan’s National river. Various fruits like walnuts, apples, melons and peach are grown in the upper reaches of the river while crops like potato, maize and various others are cultivated throughout its length.

The scarcity of the rain in the lower Indus valley makes the river more essential for Pakistan. The Indus had been playing a major role in agriculture since the advent of Indus valley civilization, and many canals for the purpose have been constructed since the beginning of civilization. The ancient canals are being restored while new advance canals are being built to support the agricultural activity in the basin.

There are two dams in Pakistan constructed on the Indus and its tributary Jhelum- Tarbela and Mangla dams respectively. The Tarbela dam located in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa region of Pakistan is the world’s largest earth filled dam and serves for flood control, agricultural as well as electricity needs of Pakistan. The hydroelectric power plant has a total electricity generating capacity of 3478 MW.

 

Mangla dam is located in the Mirpur district of Pakistan. Mangla dam build across Jhelum is the most important dam in Pakistan serving the multipurpose needs of agriculture as well as electricity generation. Before the construction of Mangla dam the irrigation yield largely depended on the quality of monsoon and also there was no method to hold the much needed water for irrigation and other purposes. Today the dam reservoir has a total capacity of 1.1 million cusecs while the power house has a generation capacity of 1000 MW.

It is because of the irrigation activity and electricity generation that the Indus sustains, it is indisputably the life line of Pakistan. If Pakistan is devoid of the flow of the Indus, its agricultural and economic activities will stall and the country will be thrown into darkness with almost all of Pakistan devoid of electricity.

Indus Waters Treaty

The Indus, owing to its huge agricultural and economic activity it sustains in Pakistan and to the origination of its major tributaries in Indian Territory had long been a matter of dispute between India and Pakistan, with Pakistan expressing its concern about the likely diversion or blocking of the flow by India in case of a war or political dispute. Both Nations signed a treaty in 1960, which is called the ‘Indus Waters Treaty’.

The treaty was an agreement between India and Pakistan dividing the control of water of Indus and its five major tributaries between India and Pakistan. The treaty gave India control of three eastern most rivers –Sutlej, Beas and Ravi, while Pakistan settled with the three western rivers- Jhelum, Chenab and Indus. India also has the advantage of using waters of Jhelum, Chenab and Indus for non agricultural purposes.

Major Floods and Threats

The river had been responsible for two major floods in past – 2010 Pakistan floods and 2011 Sindh floods. In the former the river broke its banks due to unusually heavy monsoon rains during July 2010. The floods destroyed crops over a million acre of land and is infamous for killing and displacing thousands while doing huge losses to property throughout the length of Indus on both sides of its banks.

Similar flood as 2010 was witnessed in Pakistan during the monsoon season of August 2011. Then also hundreds were killed and millions were displaced, along with huge losses to agriculture and property.

The banks of the Indus River have developed as a major spot for setting up of industries which pose a serious threat to the purity of water and the ecology it sustains. The pollution of Indus from industrial waste has resulted in extinction of many aquatic species including the Indus river dolphin. The Sindh Environmental Protection Agency has provided a ray of hope by ordering such factories to shut down.

 

  1. THE SUTLEJ RIVER

The Indus Water Treaty of 1960 allocated the water of Sutlej mainly to India, which uses it for agricultural purposes in the states of Punjab, Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Haryana and Rajasthan. The river also supports many major hydroelectric projects.

Origin and course of the Sutlej

The Sutlej River has its source in the west of Lake Rakshatal in the Tibet. The lake Rakshatal lies west to the Mansarovar Lake and to the south of Mt Kailash. The Sutlej flows through Tibet (where it is called Elephant River) and enters India in the state of Himachal Pradesh through Shipki-La pass on Indo china border.

Upon entering India the river takes a south-westerly flow meeting with the Beas River near Firozpur, Punjab. The river continues on its south westerly course upon confluence with the Beas and passes through the Kasur District, Punjab, India into the Pakistan territory at Bhawalpur state. Finally the Sutlej confluences with Chenab near Uch Sharif to form Panjnad River.

Major projects

The Sutlej is hosting many major hydroelectric projects in India-

  • 1000 MW Bhakra Dam in Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh.
  • 1000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, in Kinnaur district, Himachal Pradesh.
  • 1530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam also in Himachal Pradesh.

Besides there is an ambitious project of connecting Sutlej and Yamuna through a 214 Km long canal, to be used for agricultural and freight purposes.

 

  1. THE BEAS RIVER

The Beas River rises in the State of Himachal Pradesh, India and flows for a length of 470 Kms before its confluence with Satluj in another Indian state of Punjab near Firozpur district. Total catchment area of the Beas is 20,300 sq km.

Origin and Course of the Beas

The Beas originates in the eastern Pir Panjal range of the Himalayas, on the eastern side of the Rohtang pass in Kullu, Himachal Pradesh. The elevation of the river at its origin is 4361 metres above the sea level. During its flow to lower plains it passes through Mandi district and Shivalik hills in Hoshiyarpur, Punjab.

From then on it turns southwards at the foot of the hill and passes through the districts of Jalandhar, Amritsar and Kapurthala. Finally the Beas empties into the Sutlej near Jalandhar district of Punjab. The main tributaries of Beas are-Ulhal, Bainganga, Luni and Bain.

Major Projects

  • Larji Hydroelectric Project in Kullu with a capacity of 126 MW.
  • Baner and Neugal projects in Kangra district with an installed capacity of 12 MW, on two of its tributaries-Baner and Neugal.

 

  1. THE RAVI RIVER

The Ravi River rises in the Indian state of Himachal Pradesh and finally meets the Chenab River in Pakistan to drain into the Arabian Sea through Indus River. In India the river traverses through a length of nearly 715 Km, having a total drainage area of 14442 sq Km in India. Ravi is a vital source of water for irrigation purpose in India as well as Pakistan. Besides there are many hydroelectric projects currently running on the river.

Origin and Course of Ravi

Rising in the Kangra district of Himachal Pradesh, India; the river flows in the south easterly direction and turning steeply towards North West and again turning south east after traversing few miles, passing through the districts of Barabhangal and Chamba. The river enters in Punjab near Pathankot; from there it flows along the India Pakistan border for nearly 75 Kms before entering Pakistan before its confluence with the Chenab.

Major Projects

  • Madhpur Headworks in 1902- a major irrigation project for diverting water for irrigation purpose.
  • Baira Suil Hydroelectric Power project with capacity of 198 MW.
  • Chamera-I with total capacity of 540 MW.
  • Chamera- II with a total capacity of 300 MW.
  • Ranjitsagar multipurpose project with capacity of 600 MW.

 

  1. THE JHELUM RIVER

Jhelum River is located in the northwest India and north- eastern Pakistan. The Indus Waters Treaty allocates the water of Jhelum to Pakistan. Total length of the Jhelum from its origin till its confluence with Chenab in Pakistan is 750 Km.

Origin and Course of Jhelum

The Jhelum River rises from the Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir, located at the base of inner Himalayan mountain range known as Pir Panjal Mountain range. In India the river passes through Srinagar and Woolar Lake, entering the planes of Pakistan in Jhelum district before merging with Chenab to form a major tributary of the Indus.

Major Projects

  • Uri dam in Jammu and Kashmir with 400 MW installed capacity.
  • Trimmu barrage in Punjab Pakistan, with a total discharge capacity of 18000 m3/sec.
  • Rasul barrage Pakistan with a flow of 24000 m3/sec.
  • 330 MW Krishna Ganga Hydroelectric plant located in Jammu and Kashmir.
  • Mangla Dam in Pakistan with a capacity of 7.3 KM3.

 

  1. THE CHENAB RIVER

The waters of Chenab were allocated to Pakistan in the Indus waters treaty. The Chenab River rises from the Spiti District of Himachal Pradesh in the upper Himalayas. The river traverse passing through few districts of Jammu and Kashmir, India and enters Punjab Province of Pakistan before emptying into the Indus. The river has a total running length of 960 Km.

Origin and Course of Chenab

Rising from the spiti district of Himachal Pradesh located in the upper Himalayas the river passes through the districts of Reasi, Ramban and Kishtawar in the state of Jammu and Kashmir. The river is formed by the confluence of two of its major tributaries- Chandra and Bhaga. After entering Pakistan, the Chenab empties into Indus River near the city of Uch Sharif in southern Pakistan.

Major Projects

  • Salal dam near Reasi- 690 MW.
  • Baglihar dam hydroelectric project in Doda-900 MW.
  • Dul Hasti Hydroelectric Plant in Kishtwar- 390MW.
  • Kiru hydroelectric project in Kishtwar-624 MW.
  • Kwar hydroelectric project in Kishtwar-540 MW.
  • Trimmu barrage located in Jhang district.

FAQS

Some Frequently Asked Questions (FAQs) about Indian Rivers go to Pakistan:

Q1) How many rivers flow between India and Pakistan?

Ans-Total six Rivers flow from India into Pakistan- Indus, Jhelum, Ravi, Beas, Chenab and Sutlej.

Q2) Which is the longest river in Pakistan?

Ans- Indus is the longest river in Pakistan with a length of nearly 2300 Km within Pakistan territory.

Q3) Where does Indus originates?

Ans-The Indus originates in the south western part of the Tibetan plateau, in the vicinity of Kailash Mansarovar Lake also known as ‘Mapam Yumko’ in China.

Q4) Which is the first Pakistani town along the flow of Indus?

Ans- Skardu in Gilgit baltistan region of Pakistan.

Q5) Which rivers are the major tributaries of Indus?

Ans-The right bank tributaries of Indus are- Kurram River and Kabul River while the left bank tributaries are Sutlej, Ravi, Jhelum Beas, and Chenab rivers.

Q6) What are other names of the Indus River?

Ans-‘Sindhu’ is the ancient name of the Indus and in Pakistan it is still called by this name. It is also known as Shinghi Khamban in Tibet.

Q7) Which currency was used for trade in Indus valley civilization?

Ans- Instead of money their trade relied on swapping system i.e. mutual exchange of goods and services. Later on soapstone seals were also used as currency.

Q8) Name some of the deities of the Indus Valley Civilization.

Ans- The civilization had three major religions- Hinduism, Buddhism and Jainism. Evidences suggest the worship of Gods like Shiva and Rudra.

Q9) Where was the Indus River Valley civilization?

Ans- Indus river valley included an area of 12, 60,000 sq Km extending from North East Afghanistan to North West India including all of Pakistan from 5000 BCE to 1500 BCE.

Q10) Name some well known ancient cities on the banks of the Indus.

Ans- Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro during the Indus valley civilization.

Q11) What is Indus’s total drainage area?

Ans- 11, 65,000 sq kms.

Q12) What are the major dams on Indus?

Ans-There are two dams in Pakistan constructed on the Indus and its tributary Jhelum- Tarbela and Mangla dams respectively.

Q13) Had Indus witnessed any major floods in near past?

Ans- Yes, twice –July 2010 and august 2011

Q14) What is the treaty for distribution of Indus water between India and Pakistan called?

Ans- Indus water treaty 1960.

Q15) According to the Indus Water Treaty which rivers were given in control of India and Pakistan?

Ans- The treaty gave India control of three eastern most rivers –Sutlej, Beas and Ravi, while Pakistan settled with the three western rivers- Jhelum, Chenab and Indus.

Q16) Where does Sutlej originates?

Ans- The Sutlej River has its source in the west of Lake Rakshatal in the Tibet.

Q17) What is the old name of the Sutlej River?

Ans- The other name of Sutlej is Satadree.

Q18) What is the total basin area of Sutlej?

Ans- 3, 95, 000 sq Kms is the total basin area of the Sutlej.

Q19) What is the length of Sutlej in India and Pakistan?

Ans- Total length of 1450 Km out of which a total flow of 14050 Km in Indian Territory.

Q20) What are some of the major Tributaries of the Sutlej?

Ans- Some major tributaries of the Sutlej are – Spiti, Soan, Baspa and Nogli Khad Rivers.

Q21) What are some major dams on Sutlej?

Ans- Bhakra Dam in Bilaspur, Himachal Pradesh, 1000 MW Karcham Wangtoo Hydroelectric Plant, in Kinnaur district, Himachal Pradesh and 1530 MW Nathpa Jhakri Dam also in Himachal Pradesh.

Q22) Where does Beas River originates?

Ans- The Beas originates in the eastern Pir Panjal range of the Himalayas.

Q23) What is the total length of the Beas River?

Ans- Total flow of Beas is 470 Kms before the confluence with Sutlej.

Q24) What are major tributaries of the Beas River?

Ans- Bain, Luni, Uhal and banganga are some of the major tributaries of Beas River.

Q25) What are the major dams build on the Beas?

Ans- Larji hydroelectric project in Kullu, Baner and Neugal in Kangra on tributaries Baner and Neugal respectively.

Q26) What is the origin of the Ravi River?

Ans- Ravi has its origin in the Himalayas in Kangra district, Multan tehsil of Himachal Pradesh.

Q27) What is the old name of Ravi River?

Ans-Parusni and Airavati are two ancient names of the Ravi River.

Q28) What is the total length of Ravi River?

Ans- Total length of the Ravi River is 720 Kms.

Q29) What are the tributaries of Ravi River?

Ans- Bhadal, Siul, Baira and Tant Gari are some of the main tributaries of Ravi.

Q30) What are the major projects build on Ravi and its tributaries?

Ans- Baira suil, Chamera I, Chamera II and Ranjit Sagar multipurpose projects are some of the important projects on the Ravi River.

Q31) Where does Jhelum originates?

Ans- Himalayan Mountain range located in Anantnag district of Jammu and Kashmir.

Q32) What is the total length of Jhelum?

Ans- The Jhelum has a total length of 750 Kms.

Q33) What is the ancient mythological name of Jhelum?

Ans- The ancient mythological name of Jhelum is ‘Vitasta’.

Q34) What are the major tributaries of Jhelum?

Ans-Lidder River, Sind River, Neelam River, Kunhar River, Poonch River are the tributaries of Jhelum.

Q35) Name some important projects/dams on Jhelum.

Ans- Uri and Krishna Ganga Hydroelectric projects in J & K, Rasu barrage and Mangla dam in Pakistan.

Q36) Where does Chenab River originates?

Ans- The Chenab originates in the upper reaches of the Himalayas in Spiti district of Himachal Pradesh.

Q37) What is the total length of the Chenab River?

Ans- Total length of Cheab River is 960 Kms.

Q38) What are the major tributaries of Chenab?

Ans-Bhaga and Chandra rivers are two major tributaries of the Chenab.

Q39) What are some major projects on the Chenab River?

Ans-Salal dam, Baglihar, Kiru and Kwar Hydroelectric projects.